Terbium is a member of the lanthanide series

Rectangle_large

Posted on: 14 December 2021 by chen shanshan

Terbium is a member of the lanthanide series

Terbium is a member of the lanthanide series,atomic number 65, periodic group III (class) subgroup, lanthanide series element, silver-white metal, element symbol Tb, is a rare earth metal, and toxic. There is only one stable isotope in nature, and there are 20 other radioactive isotopes. The hexagonal lattice is soluble in dilute acid and reacts slowly with water. Has high reactivity. It should be stored in a container filled with inert gas or a vacuum container.

Its compounds can be used as insecticides and also used to treat skin diseases. The preciousness of terbium and its many excellent characteristics make it in an irreplaceable position in some application fields. It is widely used in agriculture, industry, animal husbandry, medicine and health, high-tech industries and other fields.

 

A brief history of discovery

It was discovered by C.G.Mosander in 1843. Originally named erbium oxide, it was officially named terbium in 1877. It was purified by G. Urbain for the first time in 1905. It is named after the Swedish village Ytterby.

In 1843, Sweden's Karl G. Mosander discovered terbium through the study of yttrium soil. The application of terbium mostly involves high-tech fields. It is a technology-intensive and knowledge-intensive cutting-edge project, and it is a project with significant economic benefits, and it has attractive development prospects. During the same period when lanthanum was discovered, Mossander conducted an analysis and research on the first discovered yttrium, and published a report in 1842, clarifying that the first discovered yttrium soil was not a single element oxide, but an oxide of three elements. He still called one of them yttrium soil, and one of them named terbia (terbium soil). The element symbol is Tb. The source of its name is the same as that of yttrium, from the place where the yttrium ore was originally discovered, the village of Ytterby near Stockholm, Sweden).

The discovery of terbium and the other two elements lanthanum and erbium opened the second door to the discovery of rare earth elements, which was the second stage of the discovery of rare earth elements. Their discovery was to find three of the rare earth elements after the two elements of cerium and yttrium. There are five in total.

 

Distribution of mineral deposits

A small amount is present in phosphocerium thorium sand and silicon beryllium yttrium ore. Terbium and other rare earth elements coexist in monazite sand, and the content of terbium is generally 0.03%. Other sources include xenotime and black rare gold ore, both of which are a mixture of oxides, containing up to 1% terbium.

It coexists with other rare earth elements in monazite sand, and the content of terbium is 0.03%. Other sources include xenotime and black rare gold ore, both of which are oxide mixtures containing up to 1% terbium.

 

Application field

Medical treatment: X-ray photography used to diagnose human bones and lungs must use terbium. In order to improve the sensitivity of X-ray film, a sensitizer that can emit fluorescence when exposed to X-rays is needed. Tb3+ is used in the sensitizer Gd2O2S, which improves the sensitivity of the film.

Magnetic deflection: The material stretches in the direction of magnetization, that is, the change in size is called magnetic deflection, also called magnetic skew. Terbium-iron and terbium-dysprosium-iron have a large magnetic deflection effect and are used in the print head of computer printers and precision processing equipment. The secret lies in the shape of the flat 4f electron cloud of terbium, and after applying a magnetic field, in order to move the electrons, it relies on the movement of the surrounding atoms that correspond to it.

Activator: Phosphors are used as the activator of the green powder in the three primary color phosphors, such as terbium-activated phosphate matrix, terbium-activated silicate matrix, terbium-activated cerium magnesium aluminate matrix, all in the excited state Glows green light.

Optical disk: As a computer recording medium, the optical disk uses a heavy rare earth element-transition metal element series alloy represented by a terbium-iron-cobalt alloy. During laser irradiation, information is written and read using changes in reflected light magnetized by the surface.

Magneto-optical storage materials and terbium-based magneto-optical materials have reached the scale of mass production. Magneto-optical discs developed with Tb-Fe amorphous thin films are used as computer storage elements, and the storage capacity is increased by 10 to 15 times.

Magneto-optical glass: Faraday rotator glass containing terbium is a key material for manufacturing rotators, isolators and circulators widely used in laser technology. Especially the development of terbium and dysprosium magnetostrictive alloy (TerFenol),

Terfenol is a new material discovered in the 1970s. Half of the alloy is composed of terbium and dysprosium, sometimes with holmium, and the rest is iron. The alloy was first developed by the Arms Laboratory in Iowa, USA. When in a magnetic field, the change of its size is greater than that of general magnetic materials. This change can enable some precision mechanical movements to be realized. Terbium and dysprosium iron began to be mainly used in sonar, and it has been widely used in many fields, from fuel injection systems, liquid valve control, micro-positioning to mechanical actuators, mechanisms and adjustments of aircraft and space telescopes, wing adjusters to individual types The production of loudspeakers and other fields.

Terbium can also be used for non-destructive inspection of solder joints such as ships and pipelines.

Rare earths have many magnetic bodies and luminous bodies. These are the rotation direction of electrons (4f electrons) and the transfer of electron energy that take advantage of the special characteristics of rare earths.

Small amounts of terbium are used in special lasers and solid-state components.

 

Toxicological analysis

Scientists used broad beans as materials to study the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of terbium. 1. The results of the broad bean micronucleus test and chromosome aberration test showed that terbium nitrate can induce micronuclei in broad bean root tip cells, showing a dose-effect relationship within the concentration range of 3-24'μg/mL; it can induce chromosome aberrations at 3-12μg There is a dose-effect relationship in the concentration range of /mL, indicating that the rare earth element terbium has a certain genetic toxicity to the root tip of broad bean. 2. The results of the mitotic index test showed that terbium nitrate at a low concentration (3-12μg/mL) could promote the mitosis of broad bean root tip cells and increase MI. But as the concentration increases, MI decreases. It shows that the rare earth element terbium has certain cytotoxicity to broad bean root tip. Relevant research orders stated that the micronucleus index of broad bean root tip cells and the micronucleus index of mammalian cells have a very significant correlation, indicating that the two species at the same phylogenetic level have the same effect on the genetic material DNA damage. It shows that the rare earth element terbium has potential biological effects.

 

About us

As a global Contract Research Organization (CRO), headquartered in New York, USA, Alfa Chemistry has served the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries for years. Today, Alfa Chemistry is specialized in organic chemistry, material chemistry, and medicinal chemistry. Here are some our products, such as: Tin CatalystsTantalum CatalystsThallium CatalystsTris 2-aminoethyl amine, etc.

Share with friends



Do you agree with this Blog? Agree 0% Disagree 0%
You need to be signed in to rate.
Profile_user

sarah sarahemmaa posted 15 December 2021

It really looks great, I've seen many other posts, that's the info I needed, thanks for sharing.

Profile_user

aliana ales posted 16 December 2021

During the eat-and-run verification process, sites that have been identified as fraudulent sites are separately selected, determined as dangerous sites, and provided to you. 토토

Profile_user

soveda4966 soveda4966 posted 16 December 2021

I really like your writing style, great info , regards for posting : D. ESTA VISA APPLICATION CENTER

Profile_user

telobi3311 telobi3311 posted 23 December 2021

Awesome article! I want people to know just how good this information is in your article. It’s interesting, compelling content. Your views are much like my own concerning this subject. Web Design Company Mississauga

Profile_user

lemeyiy711 lemeyiy711 posted 27 December 2021

You made some respectable points there. I seemed on the web for the problem and found most people will go along with with your website. https://a-ufa888.net.com

Profile_user

xicowo6597 xicowo6597 posted 27 December 2021

My brother suggested I would possibly like this web site. He was once entirely right. This publish truly made my day. You cann’t imagine just how so much time I had spent for this information! Thank you! 토토사이트

Profile_user

woham woher posted 01 January 2022

The Eat-and-Go blog provides a list of the latest eat-and-run sites that will satisfy everyone who is looking for a safe playground . In addition, since there is no way for general users to verify a site that has just started operating, we are putting effort into delivering accurate and useful information by operating a new site eat- and-run verification bulletin board to help even a little . 먹튀검증

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 04 January 2022

A very excellent blog post. I am thankful for your blog post. I have found a lot of approaches after visiting your post. Halfway House near me

Profile_user

aliana ales posted 04 January 2022

Thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love learning more on this topic. 918kisspg.com

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 06 January 2022

Thanks for your post. I’ve been thinking about writing a very comparable post over the last couple of weeks, I’ll probably keep it short and sweet and link to this instead if thats cool. Thanks. https://www.now-relx.com/news/6

Profile_user

Mitaeda Shaikh posted 12 January 2022

The article looks magnificent, but it would be beneficial if you can share more about the suchlike subjects in the future. Keep posting. small business consulting

Profile_user

Brown Brown posted 18 January 2022

This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post. 메이저사이트 모음

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 19 January 2022

I’ve read some good stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how much effort you put to create such a great informative website. Business Funding

Profile_user

Mitaeda Shaikh posted 22 January 2022


This particular is usually apparently essential and moreover outstanding truth along with for sure fair-minded and moreover admittedly useful My business is looking to find in advance designed for this specific useful stuffs… rehabs in Florida

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 22 January 2022

I went over this website and I believe you have a lot of wonderful information, saved to my bookmarks Yalelodge ru

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 29 January 2022

Yes i am totally agreed with this article and i just want say that this article is very nice and very informative article.I will make sure to be reading your blog more. You made a good point but I can't help but wonder, what about the other side? !!!!!!Thanks https://homeologyla.com

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 03 February 2022

Superior post, keep up with this exceptional work. It's nice to know that this topic is being also covered on this web site so cheers for taking the time to discuss this! Thanks again and again! i was reading this

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 05 February 2022

nice bLog! its interesting. thank you for sharing.... Buy Black Tar Heroin Online

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 08 February 2022

This is my first visit to your web journal! We are a group of volunteers and new activities in the same specialty. Website gave us helpful data to work. cartoon

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 15 February 2022

Your work is truly appreciated round the clock and the globe. It is incredibly a comprehensive and helpful blog. tattoo laser removal machine price

Profile_user

xicowo6597 xicowo6597 posted 16 February 2022

Saw the whole brief article. There is certainly some definitely helpful information and facts here. thank you. “There is no exercise better for the heart than reaching down and lifting people up.” by John Andrew Holmes.. 토토사이트

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 17 February 2022

This is my first time visit to your blog and I am very interested in the articles that you serve. Provide enough knowledge for me. Thank you for sharing useful and don't forget, keep sharing useful info: CBD lotion

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 21 February 2022


I found your this post while searching for information about blog-related research ... It's a good post .. keep posting and updating information. joker909

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 05 March 2022

I visit your blog regularly and recommend it to all of those who wanted to enhance their knowledge with ease. The style of writing is excellent and also the content is top-notch. Thanks for that shrewdness you provide the readers! Film Reviews

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 14 March 2022

I am very happy to discover your post as it will become on top in my collection of favorite blogs to visit. Used Cars Nashville TN Used Cars Near Me

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 19 March 2022

Please share more like that. ดูหนัง

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 22 March 2022

thanks this is good blog. NB Relationship Counselling

Profile_user

Mitaeda Shaikh posted 23 March 2022

Thanks for your post. I’ve been thinking about writing a very comparable post over the last couple of weeks, I’ll probably keep it short and sweet and link to this instead if thats cool. Thanks. Alba Iulia

Profile_user

master986 shah posted 24 March 2022

Great knowledge, do anyone mind merely reference back to it pg slot

Profile_user

Mitaeda Shaikh posted 24 March 2022

You know your projects stand out of the herd. There is something special about them. It seems to me all of them are really brilliant! delta 8 gummies



Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned!